A Professor of African Cultures (Hausa)

Monday, October 14, 2019

Folklore And Economic Security In Nigeria: (Alhaji Gambo Fagada a Radical Whistle Blower in Financial Crimes and Economic Genocide Matters)

Gambo was born in Fagada Babba, Mayyama Local Government, Kebbi State, Nigeria. His real date of birth is still under the cloud, but he claimed to be Seventy years old (70) as at 2002/2003. He died in the year 2016. By his oral testimony, he might be between 85/86 years old by the year 2018/2019 respectively. His pen name is Alhaji Muhammadu Gambo Mai Waqar Varayi. He was an accidental singer as he did not learn the art of singing from any singer of his contemporaries.

Folklore And Economic Security In Nigeria:
(Alhaji Gambo Fagada a Radical Whistle Blower in Financial Crimes and Economic Genocide Matters)

Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza
(Professor of African Cultures [Hausa])
Department of Languages and Cultures
Faculty of Humanities and Education
Federal University Gusau
Zamfara State

Folkore is a scientific study of ancient antiquities and its relevance to human socialization and development. An outsider may perceive its functions as a mere entertainment and preservation of norms and cultures. Indeed it is, but it has a more deeper significance. Culture is in-built in us and we cannot do without it. All the human innovations and developments are much related to their cultural background which motivates all their actions in their struggle to survive and overcome confronting situations and challenges. In this view, no civilization is possible without cultural contributions of its inhabitants. In the perception of Hausa society, folklore is the most relevant antidote in the treatment of any unwanted issue challenging the rightly guided norms in the society. Hausa popular culture, specifically proverbs, tales, songs and poetries are the basic drugs for the treatment of social problems and evil practices. This paper is in memory of late Alhaji Muhammadu Gambo Fagada (alias Maivarayi) with special reference to his masterpiece “In Praise of Thieves”. Points raised therein are radical whistle blowing in poetic styles which is unprecedented in the history of Hausa Oral Songs. The paper concentrates very much on the financial and economic crimes committed by the Nigerian civil servants, politicians and security agencies which he critically testified against and radically exposed.

The Radical Gambo
Gambo was born in Fagada Babba, Mayyama Local Government, Kebbi State, Nigeria. His real date of birth is still under the cloud, but he claimed to be Seventy years old (70) as at 2002/2003. He died in the year 2016. By his oral testimony, he might be between 85/86 years old by the year 2018/2019 respectively. His pen name is Alhaji Muhammadu Gambo Mai Waqar Varayi. He was an accidental singer as he did not learn the art of singing from any singer of his contemporaries. His poetry life started when he was around 35/40 years old through contact with thieves and gamblers. Though he claimed to be an independent singer of his own right and has no teacher or master in the profession. However, careful studies of his masterpieces “Waqoqin Sata” (Songs of Thieves), betrays many traces of poetic ideas of Alhaji Kassu Zurmi, Xanmotti Wababe and Kwara Mairuwa in his arts. Gambo graduated as the most popular radical singer in praise of thieves of all kinds including civil servants, politicians and security agencies. He opened up many undisclosed issues of financial crimes, corrupt practices and economic vandalization committed by Nigerian looters. He gives no damn to whosoever is concerned and have no fear of authority in exposing the criminals regardless of their personality. He boldly mentions:
Jagora:        Don a vantala sata niy yi ganga
:Ba don wani qato mai naxi ba

Leader:        My drums are meant for the thieves
:And not for the so-called big men (with ugly turban)

Certainly, this radical statement is an open attack on the then traditional ruling class and a clear fact that the poet under review is radical and confrontational in his art.

Whistle Blowing In Hausa Folklore
Whistle blowing in Hausa folklore is widely spreads signals in the proverbs, wise saying, tales, songs and poetries. Proverbs with warning statements, cautions certain acts likely to harm or mislead. The Hausa saying to a blind man “Hannunka mai sanda” literally meaning “Take care and mind your steps” is directly telling him that he is about to miss his road or he has missed it. Many Hausa proverbs have similar trends in warning or cautioning against some of our activities such as:
a.      Kifi na ganinka mai jar homa/koma (Your trap is clearly visible said a fish to a fisher with red net).
b.     Da walakin goro cikin miya (It is very odd indeed to find ‘kola nut’ in a soup)
c.      Da haka muka faraKuturu ya ga mai qyasfi (‘This is how it all started’ muttered the leper when he saw a patient with ringworm).
d.     Tsuyen da ka zama gwaiwa tun yana qarami aka ganewa (Testis that will develop to biennia can be detected at early period).
e.      Babu varawo me ya kawo sunansa in ji Buzu (This is a short tale of a Tuareg who was looking for a place to hang his shoe around a mosque. The people sitting by the side of the mosque told him that: “Feel comfortable, there is no thief here.’ He replied: ‘If there is no thief, why should his name be mentioned?’)

A prominent court musician in Hausaland in person of Ibrahim Narambaxa contributed to this development in the following:
Jagora:        In ka ga mutum mai gudun mutane
:To ba banza ba ya yi laihi
Yara:           In ko sun qi shi ya vakalce
:Sai shi yi zaune hanya shi kaxai
Gindi:          Tattake maza xansanda na Iro
:Gamda’aren Salau mazan qwarai.

Leader:        If you see a person always lonely and isolated
:It is not just that, he must be guilty of an offence committed
Chorus:       If he is discarded he would loom into more trouble
: Consequently, he would be lonely by the road side forever
Base:           You stood on the able men son of Sanda man of Iro
: Gamda’aren Salau the right (gentle) man.

Whistle Blowing In Nigerian Context and Hausa Poetic Tradition
When the Nigerian Financial Crimes reached the level of economic ‘genocide’, the civil servants are at the warfront in corrupt practices, politicians loot the economy dry, the security agents became the agents of looters and thieves while the judiciary no longer respects the rule of law. Many agencies were created to address this unusual situation. Thus, the NOA, EFCC, ICPC and DSS were believed to be defeated by the looters, the government had no option but to involve everybody in the fight against corrupt practices. This was done in good faith for the very few honest people in the country who have no locus-standi to arrest, may have legal backing to supply useful information where things fall apart. By the law of whistle blowing, a blower is given certain reward if he blew it rightly, but is and liable to face prosecution for false whistling. At whatever guise a political observer criticizes this effort, it works and remains relevant in the fight against financial crimes and economic ‘genocide’.
In the struggle against corruption, the amount of money recovered and assets confiscated from the looters were made publicly known to all Nigerians. Illegal arms dealings, hard drugs and contaminated food and drugs that were smuggled into the country and the external forces behind the saga were trapped and captured. Nigeria was really moving into anarchy before it got the idea of whistle blowing which helped to checkmate the rot. Had it been that, Nigerian leaders were able to consult Nigerian popular oral singers, there will be no need for whistle blowers nor of any reward to any informant. In addition, the question of prosecuting a false whistle blower is been cleverly handled by our notable singers. Take a look at a wonderful advice by Ibrahim Narambaxa to the whistle blowers of his time in the following:
Jagora:        Taro na tamabayeku shin kow wag ga wuta
:An ce a xebo wa ka zuwa?
Yara:           Wanda yag gani ka zuwa
:Kowas shaida shi ka shan rana
:In bai tai ba ya yi batun banza
:Ko can dauri shi batun banza
:Daxin hwado garai
Gindi:          Ya ci maza ya kwan shina shire
Gamda’aren Sarkin Tudu Alu

Leader:        My audience I ask you, whoever claim to see fire
:If there is instruction to go and get it, who would go?
Chorus:       The one who claim to see it must go for it
:Who ever stood to give witness must be ready for the consequences
:Alas! Liars derive pleasure in telling half-truth
Base:           Defeater of warriors, and always at defense
:Gamda’aren Chief of Tudu Alu

Whistle blowing is a very familiar issue in Hausa folklore. Therefore, it is not a new thing to employ our artists who master the art in the political issues threatening the well-being of our time-tasted cultural heritage. It may be recalled that, during Obasanjo’s political era, when he insisted on self-succession (tazarce) a poem was composed entitled: “A Gaya wa Obasnjo, Ba Mu Yarda Tazarce Ba”, (Let Obasanjo be Informed, We would not accept self-succession). It influenced the mood and Obasanjo was forced to leave unceremoniously. At the eve of Buhari’s political era Kahutu Rarara composed a poem, “Masu Gudu Su Gudu” (Let those who dare to run away, must run away). This was the first whistle blowing before the arrival of Buhari in office through APC. With these few remarks, I will invite Alhaji Muhammadu Gambo Fagada (alias Gambo Mai Varayi) to lead the discussion.

Gambo A Whistle Blower
As an experienced whistle blower, Gambo is very careful in his assessment of the subject under review. He claimed to be created purposely for whistle blowing without anticipating any reward or pleasure for the services rendered. This can be noted in the following song:
Jagora:        Don xai in ga hasara an ka haife ni
:In tahiyata inda za ni
:Ba don wani daxi mai yawa ba

Leader:        I was purposely born to witness calamities
:And move ahead with no cause for alarm
:And I gain no pleasure at all

A good whistle blower must be a person very close to what he is reporting with full knowledge of all the tricks involved in the business for his report to be authentic. Gambo is up to the task as an insider, he mention lyricizes thus:
Jagora:        Da ni da varawo gab da gab muke
:Ba ya lave min ban lave mai
:Ba ya guduna ban gudu nai
:In kag ga varawo na gudun Gambo
:Ba satar kirki yakai ba.

Leader:        My humble self and thieves are close associates
:A thief would hide nothing to me and so I won’t
:He would not keep away from me and so I won’t
:Any thief who runs away from me
:Is never a serious but a useless thief.

These two qualities, the natural and artificial, qualify Gambo to present his case as a graduate student in the School of Whistle Blowing, Department of Financial Crimes, the University of Criminology.

Financial Crimes
          In the opinion of Gambo, fight against financial crimes must start from the top to avoid selective justice. His radical assessment into the matters of financial crimes rated the judiciary as number one culprit. In the episode, he lamented on the role of judges in the financial crimes and corrupt practices which led to the total breakdown of laws and security in the dirty business, he sings:
Gambo:       In na tashi kixin manyan varayi,
                   : Alqali ak kan takarda
                   : Wai banza ta kori wofi
                   : Alwali xaurin varayi!
                   : Yaushe wanda ka cin hanci duqunce
                   : Ka cewa ba sata shikai ba?

Gambo:       Whenever I dear want to play my drums for thieves
                   : Judges are number one on the list
                   : What a nonsense foul play
                   : Judges sentencing thieves to prison
                   : How can a person receiving bribes secretly
                   : Deny being a thief in its practical aspect?

          Gambo’s whistle blowing in this respect can be seen from the current efforts of EFCC and ICPC to recover loots from judges (of Lower and High Courts including the Supreme Court and Senior Justices). What a prophecy indeed! Judiciary have always been the problem of any progressive government in Nigeria. This is what makes hard criminals to feel very secure and comfortable in courts where the deal can be legalized quietly with no sentences to any punishment. The effect of this on law makers is that, people no longer have confidence in the judiciary and all its serving personnel. Judges and justices are exposed to the danger of the highest order. Gambo made a pointer in respect of the reaction of one of his client Muhammadu Inwa Xanmaxacci, when the later paid a surprise visit to him. He met Gambo so uncomfortable, very gloomy, he (the client) expressed his annoyances in the following manner:
Gambo:       In Alqali yat tava ka
                   : Hwaxa mini in je in ishe shi
                   : Sai ya shiga xaki ya yi rairan
                   : In tuma in kame wuya nai
                   : In taushe cikinai ban sakewa
                   : Sai ya qare shure-shure
                   : In yi subahin in gaya maka
                   : Wannan shege na kashe shi
                   : Tun da sahe a iske babu rai nai
                   : Sai a ce haka Allah Yah hukunta
                   : Ya shiga kwana lahiya lau
                   : Bai cim ma subahin lahiya

Gambo:       If any judge annoys you
                   :Tell me, I would meet him
                   : In the night when he is enjoying his sleep
                   : I would jump up and hold his throat
                   :And sit on his stomach while I squeeze the throat
                   : Until he gave up in totality
                   : I will meet you early morning
                   : Only to tell you: “that bastard is gone”
                   : In the morning people will witness his death
                   : They would have nothing to say, but, it is in the act of God
                   : He retired to bed in good health
                   : Only to discover him dead in the morning hours.

          Good beginning bad ending is the consequences of financial crimes and corrupt practices, corrupt judges and justices.

The Role of Security Agencies
          Fifty years ago, Gambo was able to convince ordinary Nigerians that security agents in the country are part of the Nigerian economic security problems. Gambo highlights the role of policemen in assisting criminals and their active participation in looting innocent people in the episode of fatal accidents. He stated this before a policeman named Soba Alu Geza during Argungu Fishing Festival, the conversation goes:
Gambo:       Sai yac ce: “‘Yansanda ba sata sukai ba”
                   :Nac ce: “Wallahi ‘yansanda na da laifi”
                   :Don an hwaxi da mota lokacin nan
                   :Ina tsaye gawa ta yi birdit!
                   :Kuma an shaida mutanen na da jalli
                    :Dangi suka zo, sai dai gawat
                   :Ba a ishe su da ko sisin kwabo ba
                   :Yaushe wanda ka wa gawa mugunta
                   :Ka cewa ba sata yakai ba?

Leader:        He said policemen don’t steal
                   :I said: By God policemen are culprit
                   :There was a car accident in one place
                   :I witnessed many dead bodies
                   :It was confirmed that they all had money
                   :Unfortunately, not a single Kobo was recovered
                   :Relatives were given only the corpses
                   :Look one who is so wicked in stealing from the dead body
                   :Is claiming that he doesn’t steal at all
          This is a grey area which our whistle blowers of nowadays are yet to peep through. Many of the fatal accidents on the highways are caused by high-way robbers assisted by the policemen. Gradually, it is now a big business for the policemen and brigands to participate in the ‘silent’ robbery. This important area was once addressed by Xanmotti Wababe in his song of Nazaqi Sarkin Varayi about fifty eight years ago (1959):
Xanmotti:    Mota ta taho gada ta hwaxa
                   :Bayin Allah suna ta Wayyo Allah!
                   :Nazaqi cikin matattu shi na tsame
                   :Wai shi bai ji tausai ba yac ce min

Xanmotti:    A car crashed into a bridge
                   :Causalities are crying for dear life
                   :Nazaqi in the midst of corpses removing money from their pockets
                   :He said, there is nothing to feel sorry in that

          The police and Nazaqi are the same in the brutality against the innocent corpses. Nigerian Customs Service are among the clients of Gambo in his assessment. As per the Customs, he blew his whistle very gently and slowly, he croons:
Gambo:       Kwatsan na wata…
                   :Ko ban hwaxi ba
                   :Wanda ak kusa duk ya san nuhina

Gambo:       Customs are playing a…
                   :I need not to mention anything
                   :Who so ever is with me knows my intention

          Gambo is saying, there is no need to blow his whistle, the activities of Nigerian Customs Service is over exposed by their behaviours and luxury life. It is the organization that generated (₦4 Billion) in four years. With the recent regime change, same organization remitted (₦96 Billion) in twenty four months. Difference of (₦92 Billion) can give us (₦184 Billion) in just four years! What an economic genocide is this? Gambo has all the rights to remain mute, hence the case is beyond comment.

Other Sectors of the Civil Service Offices
          Nigerian Civil Service system is full of foul play, corruption, varieties of financial crimes and scandals. It is observed that, Nigeria is one of the few countries where a civil servant can be richer than the organization or state he works for. This worries Gambo too much as if there are no laws guiding the operations of the civil service. It is possible that no radical whistle blower is capable to undertake the task safely. Gambo was courageous enough to address the menace in the following context:
Gambo:       In Koma Nijeriyanmu alqallai
                   :In nic ce mai riqa biro shi ka zamba
                   :Ku xora rashin kunya nikai muku
                   :Ta bayyana hili ga ta sannan
                   … … … … … … … … … …
                   :Ina Kwatano nib buxe rediyona
                   :Tun miliyan xaya haz zuwa uku
                   :Na ce kai kwata biliyan ma na vacewa
                   :Hab biliyan dun na vacewa
                   :Nac ce alqalai: “A xauko shari’un ga tun ta da can
                   :Satab biliyan xaya wa ka yin ta?
                   :Mai tare hanya bai iya ta
                   :Mai riqa reza bai irin ta
                   :Dud da mai hwashe banki bai iya ta
                   :Ko ya zo bai ishe su
                   :Don ko banki sai takardu
                   :Wannan sata wa ka yin ta
                   :Mai riqa biro xai ka yin ta
                   :Qyar-qyar-qyar ya rubuta
                   :Ya sa hannu ya kwashe su
                   :Nan suka salwanta su ko tafi
                   :Ba ganewa za a yi ba

Gambo:       Let us go to our Nigeria and justices
                   :If I say (elite) with pen are cheats
                   :You consider (me) a stupid (poet)
                   :Today issues are exposed to all
                   :I was in Cotonou listening to radio news
                   :From one million to three million
                   :Oh! I said up to a quarter of billion (naira) is missing
                   :One billion (naira) was also reported missing
                   :I contend with our Justices, in the history of such cases
                   :Who is capable of stealing one billion (naira)?
                   :A highway robber can’t do it
                   :It is beyond experts in larceny
                   :Even bank robber cannot get that
                   :Because he can’t get up to such amount in a bank
                   :Unless he can manage with bank secretariat papers
                   :This great theft, who is its qualified candidate?
                   :Only (those) holding pen (in the office) can do it
                   :Dash-dash-dash! He writes
                   :He endorsed (the paper) and it is done
                   :The whole amount is missing and nowhere to be found
                   :It is extremely difficult to be traced

          Unfortunately, these great thieves and international criminals were always giving advantage of fair hearing and bail, to continue enjoying the booty. To our dismay, the ordinary criminals of (₦200 to ₦1000) theft were imprisoned for six months. The suspect of this wonderful pen robbery and economic genocide are freely moving in the country with comfortable security aides to protect their loots. It is frightening to observe that upon all the economic hardship that our country is in, a one-time minister was alleged to have looted about ($90 billion) from a country which US experts estimated its population as at 2016/2017 to be 170,000,000 (one hundred and seventy million). By their analysis, each Nigerian, as at 2017, would have gotten (or got) about ₦138,000,000 (One hundred and thirty eight million naira only), at a go. What a merciless economic genocide? This is the reason behind Gambo’s whistle blowing in the following context:
Gambo:       Halin duniya na ban takaici
                   : Wai ga maciji ana ta biyan shayi da sanda
                   : To, ga varayi shin mib bixi mai waqar varayi?

Gambo:       Happenings in the human world are worrisome
                   :The snake is being seen, yet, we keep after its shadow with stick
                   :The thieves are clearly known, why look for Gambo their singer?

In Gambo’s opinion, the call for whistle blowers in Nigeria is not necessary. People’s income and wages are very clear, people living above such capacities are outwardly known by government and its security agencies.

Factors behind Nigerian Financial and Economic Crimes
          As a clever whistle blower, Gambo decides to draw our attention to the basic factors responsible for corrupt practices and financial crimes in our localities. He attributes the lion share of the episode to our cultural and religious backgrounds. In some instances, socio-political factors contribute to the scenario. These are some of his observations.
a.                 Unusual Gift:
It is natural that, we all want to be good and be praised for being so. The culture of begging and dependency contribute to the unwanted practice. Masses feel marginalized and the struggle between the-haves-and-haves-not is open ended. Colonial capitalist ideologies and our tribal overloadship mentalities is yet to be discarded. Materialism is the only language in politics and religious activities. Thus, Gambo cautioned us to be careful in receiving gift and charity from suspicious hands. The whistle is blown in the following way:
Gambo:       Kyautar mai kuxi ‘yar taqi ce
                   :In an yi bikin dangi shi nai ma
                   :In an yi bukin salla shi nai ma 
                   :Amma a ba ka yau, a ba ka gobe
                   :Kuma jibi a ‘yamma ba a gaza ba
                   :Wallahi varawo xai ka yin haka
                   :Ba da guminai na shi kai ba

Gambo:       Rich men’s gift is very limited
                   :If there is a family ceremony he will do it for you
                   :On the sallah celebrations he will do it for you
                   :But amazing gift of today and tomorrow
                   :And giving more the following day continuously
                   :I swear by Allah, only a thief can do that
                   :Beware! I am not joking

          The blower is calling our attention to the unusual gift from our politicians, civil servant, government officials and the so-called big men in the community. The point is more elaborated by the recent EFCC and ICPC investigations on the arms deal scandals. The lowest gift exposed by the investigation committee was fifty million naira (₦50,000,000).
b.                 Religious Factors:
          Many a times, crimes and scandals were done and covered in the name of religion. Most of our political mosques and churches were financed by culprit of financial crimes and economic ‘genocide’. Gambo pretends to be involved in the business and confessed as follows:
Gambo:       Ko an ba ni kujiyar Makka kyauta
                   :Hajji da varawo ba ni son ta
                   :Ba ta da lada ba ni yarda
                   :Sai ‘Yarbaraya taf fito tac ce: “Ka yi vanna”
                   :In an ba ka kujiyar Makka yarda
                   :Ko ba ta da lada babu laifi
                   :Kana bisa iska na bugunka
                   :Ka tai ka gano taron mutane
                   :Ko ba ta da lada babu laifi
                   : Ba ka dai kashe ko sisin kwabo ba.”

Gambo:       If you give me a gift of Hajji seat free
                   :I don’t want to perform Hajj with such money
                   :Certainly, it is not worth rewarding, I don’t want it
                   :His second wife came out and said: “You are wrong
                   :If you are given a seat for pilgrimage accept it
                   :Even if there is no any reward from God, it is not bad
                   :You are up in the sky (aeroplane) enjoying fresh air
                   :At least, you are chanced to witness the crowd gathering
                   :In the absence of any reward there is nothing to worry about,
                   :Because you contribute nothing in the travel expenses.

          The blower is making a general signal to the EFCC and ICPC that there exists a financial crime and economic genocide under the guise of the so-called officially allocated seats for pilgrimages. A onetime governor of Nigeria, was reported to have spent over three hundred million naira from the government treasury to sponsor the pilgrimage of certain preachers and clerics in the year, 2007. Alas! His state failed to pay pensioners, and retirees a single Kobo. Death benefits and compensations of land and houses were all kept in view. No doubt, Gambo is right to disrespect such ungodly deeds in the name of God. These attitudes must discontinue for our economy to be stable.

c.                  Traditional Ceremonies and Parties:
          It is much easier to apprehend culprits of corruption and bribery in the local ceremonies and hotels. Extravagant spending happening in ceremonies and parties are good grounds to suspect the sources of funds and its sponsors. In a common Hausa peasant practices in the traditions of naming ceremonies, one ram or he-goat is very adequate to a common man like Gambo. In this regard, Gambo makes a case for the likely Expected Date of Delivery (EDD) of his pregnant wife before Ja’e of Nagwade town (a notorious thief of sheeps and cows). As the EDD is fast approaching, Gambo met Ja’e with the following complain:
Gambo:       Ja’e  ka san Canda ba shi nana,
                   :Ga matata tana da ciki,
                   :In Canda na duniyag ga ba rasa xan rago nikai ba,
                   :Ja’e: “Baba tafi yawon duniyakka,
                   :In kana kusa sa aka yankewa da rago,
                   :In ba ka nan kusa, sa aka yankewa da rago,
                   :Sunan da haramun za a yin sa,
                   :Gambo ban kashe ko sisin kwabo ba.”

Gambo:       Ja’e you know (your father) Canda is gone,
                   :And my wife is pregnant,
                   :If Canda is alive, my ram is certain,
                   :Ja’e responded: “My father go and enjoy yourself in the world,
                   :If you are around, cow and ram would be slaughtered,
                   :If you are away, cow and ram would be slaughtered,
                   :The ceremony would be celebrated with looted funds,
                   :You would have nothing to lose on your own” 
          Criminal attitudes are in some instances inherited in the family, ‘like father like a son’? Gambo is telling Nigerians that, the criminals that squeezed Nigeria dry, are giving birth to same bad eggs. This is a pointer to the fact that, our hope for any change in future is doubtful. In addition, the blower is inviting our security men to be very vigilant to all ceremonies in the name of happy birthday, naming ceremony, marriage ceremony, and funeral ceremony; extra-ordinary spending must be checkmated and suspects be brought to justice.

d.                 Questionable Assistance:
These are the assistance given to the people who do not deserve it from the person giving it, or assistance coming from a person who is not in position to give such assistance. Mind you, this is not gratification, but an attempt to influence. This issue was brought up by Gambo in the name of Layya sacrifice, which he claims: 
Gambo:       In nit tuna layyata ta bara,
                   :Sai raina ya vaci Gambo,
                   :To ban tambai maluma ba,
                   :Ko akwai ta da lada ban sani ba,
                   :Ko ba ta da ban sani ba,
                   :Qila ko bana in sake irinta,
                   :Waxanga bisaisai masu tsada
                   … … … … … … … … … … …
                   :Nay yi subahin nay yi yamma,
                   :Bakin garka da ni ishe Dikko,
                   … … … … … … … … … … …                
:Nac ce: “Don ka san yau jajibir muke,
                   :Dikko ba ni da kuxxi ban da rago,
                   :Kuma ba ni hwashin layya gobe.”
                   … … … … … … … … … … …
                   :Na ishe manyan raguna biyu,
                   :Xaure ga banza an aje min,
                   … … … … … … … … … … …
                   :Nic ce: “A mayar ba ni yarda,
                   :Tunda ba ta da lada ba ni yarda.”
                   :Yac ce: “Ga xan gaton uwa,
                   :Ai ba ta batun lada akai ba,
                   :A dai hita kunyan wanga taro.”
                   :Dan nan nas sake tunani,
                   :Ban ba da ruwa ban da dussa,
                   :Ban tava kai daji kiyo ba,
                   :Ai ko ba ta da lada babu laifi,
                   :Mu tai mu ci soye ni da Hawwa,
                   :Mu kwana rabon manyan awazzai.

Gambo:       If I recall my last Layya rituals,
                   :I feel very bad in my mind,
                   :I did not seek for spiritual guide,
                   :If it can be rewarded (by God),
                   :If it has no reward, I do not know,
                   :Most likely, this year I would do the same,
                   :Sheep of nowadays are very costly.
                   … … … … … … … … … … …
                   :After my early morning prayer, I took to the west,
                   :By the door, I met Dikko sitting,
                   … … … … … … … … … … …
                   :I told him, you know today is jajibir day,
                   :I have no money and I have no ram,
                   :Certainly, I must observe my sacrifice tomorrow,
                   … … … … … … … … … … …
                   :I met two big rams in my house,
                   :Displayed in my house properly tied,
                   … … … … … … … … … … …
                   :I said it should be returned to sender,
                   :I would not accept it, there is no reward in it,
                   :He replied: “You stupid, who told you it is Godly”
                   :Ah! We are not hoping for any reward in it,
                   :Let us entertain our guest,
                   :Right from there, I thought over it,
                   :I neither give water nor food to the rams,
                   :And I never rear it (even for an hour),
                   :If it carries no reward, whose fault,
                   :Ours is to eat delicious roosted meat, 
                   :And we give out big ribs to others as charity.

          There is no how government can fight corruption and financial crimes without given heed to local issues surrounding the problem. In most cases, financial and material assistance contribute to the crimes we stand to fight against. How can one imagine a criminal presenting a gift to a law maker or to a security personnel?  This is similar to a situation where permanent secretaries, commissioners, and directors donating hundreds of millions of naira or materials worth that, to their serving governors. This is the prayer of Gambo, and it is not late to look into it, and act accordingly.

Research Findings
          Corruption, financial crimes and economic ‘genocide’ have been major problems in any progressive government in the world. Corruption has been the major problem in Nigerian government from post-colonial era to date. Nigerian military administration laid a good foundation but with terrible bad ending. Most of the Nigerian military regimes were responsible for breeding very powerful international crooks, corrupts and irresponsible off-shoots. The democratic history of Nigeria also started well, but was later interrupted by ambitious power mongers who have no respect to the rule of law. Nigeria of the twenty first century (21st century) must wake up to decide for its future. From the folklore perspectives, I have the following recommendations:
1.     Corruption and crimes have permeated from top to toe of our country. No government can fight it in ten years, let alone the eight years given to democratically elected government. Gambo studied corruption at home, for more than fifty years. With the fifty years’ experience of ‘Professor’ Gambo, this paper is suggesting special curriculum dealing with the menace of corruption and crime from our primary schools to the highest level of education in the country.
2.     The curriculum for such education must conquer our native norms and cultures for the message to be simply comprehended and be committed into memory by our pupils and senior students. To get it right, our orature, in particular the oral songs, proverbs, and folk-tales must occupy the greater content of the anticipated curriculum. I suggest, Gambo’s songs to be incorporated as a primary teaching resource.
3.       Nigeria’s problem of corruption, financial crimes, and economic ‘genocide’ is a special problem in the world of corruption and crime. In Nigeria, corruption is a business engaged by top government functionaries (presidency included), top military officers, first class traditional rulers, (Emirs, Obas, Chiefs and alike), leading politicians, renown preachers and clerics, popular organizations and associations (governmental and private). Gambo suggested capital punishment, imprisonment, execution and confiscations of the loots in varieties of his songs. It is hereby endorsed.
4.     The major causes of corruption and crimes in Nigeria are religious and ethnic inferiority conflicts created by external forces. These artificial differences were never a problem in the early Nigerian history. The looters of the nation’s economy are using their loots to finance crises, attacks, insurgency and secterian crises to get their way through. We all know them from the interpretations of Gambo, it is left on us to find our ways of skipping their traps

          A Hausa popular proverb sums up our discussions as it says: In zaka faxi, faxi gaskiya, “Let the truth be told”. This is because, gaskiya sunanta gaskiya, truth has only one name “truth”. As observed by Professor Plo Lumumba. African problems are:
Those with ideas have no power and those with power have no idea.
                   … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
When electorate is given chance between you with idea and one without idea the African afinity with people without idea is amazing…

          By the above fair assessment of African problems, our democracy must go back to the drawing board to reassess itself and resume its full support and respect for the rule of law without fear and favour. We cannot sanction or fight against corruption with selective justice. The Nigerian commissions against corrupt practices, financial and economic crimes matters need to come out with a law or policy that would force the looters to vomit all their loots stashed away at home and abroad. Justice Gambo suggested a brutal trial to his client in person of Aliyu na Tambuwal in aggravated burglary.
Gambo:       In ka je yi wa mai kuxi sata da daddare,
                   :Kak ka yi mai sata shina kwance,
                   :Jijjigas shi sai ya tashi,
                   :In yat taso tallabas shi,
                   :Tari bakin shege da bindiga,
                   :Ce in ba kuxxi ba ranka,
                   :Ai shi ka gwada ma wurin da dus suke,
                   :Bai rigima bai tad da yaya.

Gambo:       If you go to the rich man’s house at night,
                   :Don’t steal anything while he is sleeping,
                   :Shake him well until he awakes,
                   :If he is awake squeeze him with your two hands,
                   :Put your gun in his mouth,
                   :Tell him: “Your life or your money!”
                   :No doubt, he will show you its where about,
                   :With no hesitation and noise making.

          If our government can borrow a leaf from this style, recovery of looted funds and properties would not last for more than a month in the country.
In God we trust.

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