A Professor of African Cultures (Hausa)

Tuesday, January 1, 2019

The Death that Never was in Hausa Confrontational Songs (A study of four popular songs of four Hausa prominent Oral Singers)



Death, Faɗuwa or Fakuwa in classical Hausa, now mutuwa in modern Hausa, is the central issue of this discussion. “Death” is literally defined as cessation of physical life or extinction of anything. It is a total destruction and collapse of the general body system. It is therefore considered the terminal of the general activities of life. Scientifically, its remedy is yet to be discovered, and there is no identified cultural antidote to confront its scourge. In human culture, death remains an unavoidable battle and hence a serious debatable issue in literary revolution across the globe. In the field of research, it is everywhere and no where to be met physically or otherwise. The phobia of its unnoticed…

The Death that Never was in Hausa Confrontational Songs
(A study of four popular songs of four Hausa prominent Oral Singers)

Prof. Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza
Department of Languages and Culture
Federal University, Gusau
mabunza@yahoo.com
080 431 6508

January, 2016
Introduction
Death, Faɗuwa or Fakuwa in classical Hausa, now mutuwa in modern Hausa, is the central issue of this discussion. “Death” is literally defined as cessation of physical life or extinction of anything. It is a total destruction and collapse of the general body system. It is therefore considered the terminal of the general activities of life. Scientifically, its remedy is yet to be discovered, and there is no identified cultural antidote to confront its scourge. In human culture, death remains an unavoidable battle and hence a serious debatable issue in literary revolution across the globe. In the field of research, it is everywhere and no where to be met physically or otherwise. The phobia of its unnoticed visit remains a severe wound in our minds. Thus, all the scientific and technological advancement of past centuries resonate with confrontations to its unassailable devices. The human inability to terminate death is a great challenge from time immemorial to date. To our surprise, in Hausa oral songs, death is constantly being revoked by its consumed victims and the victims were given second chance to perform. In Hausa confrontational songs it is a popular style to elevate heroes in physical combat and consequently to meet their death in the fight. This is intentionally created to celebrate their names as heroes, and bids death farewell to give them a second life and the chance to perform again.

Hausa Confrontational Songs:
Professional Hausa singers of Hausa professions in the field of boxing, wrestling, war, (revolts and riots), including the odd categories of criminal acts of theft, robbery and burglary have traces of confrontational themes and styles. The physical confrontation of the heroes with their oppositions in the poetic realm, is what I refer to here as confrontational songs. Heroes are praised for jobs well done specifically their ability to bravely fight back with courage, and their dauntless endurance to withstand all the pains and the hardship. It is not all that shameful for one to be defeated in a fight, because if were are certain to be defeated we would not have gone into any confrontation. It is assumed that, if two elephants fight, it is the grass that would suffer the damages. Therefore, heroes are always hopeful of getting the upper hand in any struggle.
The laid down regulations in all Hausa confrontations is that, once the opponent fell down, he is considered defeated. In addition, if by any means, his hands or knees touched the ground it is also a defeat against him. The drama in the poetic narration of confrontation is thus: the poets do accept the defeat against their heroes to the extent of being ‘killeɗ and ‘burieɗ. However, to open up room for counter attack, the ‘deaɗ hero will be resurrected to fight back wonderfully. How is he called back? Why he is recalled? Are the concerns of this presentation. In the year 2015, I made an attempt to study this episode under hyperbolic style of Hausa oral songs. In this review, I think it deserves a critical study to find out how and why, the death that never was occupies Hausa brave songs? It is important to note that, the subject under review is yet to be handled in the studies of Hausa oral songs to the best of my knowledge. Thus, this paper might be considered a preliminary statement to open up this relatively virgin area.
The Selected confrontational Songs:
In this deliberation, I selected five oral songs of the most famous brave singers in Hausaland. My first choice is the late Alhaji Kassu Zurmi, a popular brave singer of hunters and thieves, and also a senior leading figure in the art. In the art of late Kassu the episode of Ƙwazo Sabattacce (Ƙwazo the Tyrant) would be studied. Alhaji Muhammadu Gambo Fagada popularly known as Gambo Mai ‘Barayi (praise singer of thievies) is the second choice. In his composition, the song of Bawa Makau, the Gummi market confrontation would be studied. Late Alhaji Garba ‘Danwasa Gummi singer of brave hunters (‘Yantauri) is another area of the study. The song of Dogozo at the Ƙaraye village fight in considered relevant to this discourse. ‘Danmatti Wababe the praise singer of Nazaƙi ‘barawo ( Nazaƙi the thief) would be evaluated at the defence. Narambaɗa, court musician, will be invited to explicate on the concept of the death of a hero in his poetic rendition. These specimen would be treated separately to enable us to develop a careful rating scale for treating Hausa confrontational songs with special reference to the active heroes and the consequences captured therein.
The Death of Ƙwazo Sabattacce:
Ƙwazo was a brave hunter and a star in the confrontational songs of Kassu Zurmi. He was addressed Sabattacce (tyrant) by Kassu because of his braveness and courage to face his enemy fearlessly. He was very successful in all his fights and remains Kassu’s hero during his hey days. In praise of Ƙwazo’s confrontations the singer has the following prophecy:
Jagor : Yac ce ko ya mutu
: In na je ga kushewatai
: Muddin nab buga gangata
: Nac ce ƙwazo sabattacce!
: Sabattacce! Sabattacce
: Ƙwazo sabattacce!
: Sai ya ƙaƙƙalle itacenai,
: In ba Wanakiri ya ɗaurai ba.

Translation:
Even if I am dead lying in my grave,
If you used your musical instrument,
And recite my citation
The tyrant! The tyrant!
Kwazo the tyrant! Ƙwazo the tyrant,
I would pull out all the sticks beneath my grave,
Provided I was not bundled up (or manacled) by the Angles.
Comments:
Ƙassu confirmed his hero’s death. The client is buried and he decided to call him back to arena. The talking drum to be played in singing his praise would reawaken his soul to rush out of his grave and welcome his dear singer. The literary interpretation to the episode is that, Ƙwazo remains a hero forever. He cannot be challenged at the battle front and he is capable to withstand all the challenges in the confrontation, and is up to the task indeed. A person who was confirmed dead and buried, had decided to reject death, and is so bold enough to scatter his grave woods only to honour his praise being sang by his singer, is doubtlessly unconquerable. Until his death, there was never a hero of his equal status. This is the credit Kassu wishes to give Ƙwazo to make him a hero in his locality and beyond.
Bawa Makau in Gummi Market
Makau was a notorious thief in Gummi central market. On Friday he was trapped and apprehended rightly. People were aggrieved with Makau’s criminal attitudes and bow to eliminate him right away. Makau was caught unaware and in attempt to escape, the story goes:
Jagora : Wata rana an tasai kasuwar Gumi,
: “Kai ku kashe” kowa ka cewa,
: Babu guda mai kawo ceto
: Daga mai zare takabo masu adda,
: Sai masu ciro ice na darni
: Sanda mutane nar rufe Bawa,
: Ina tsaye sai nak kau da kaina.
: Ana ta bugun mugun yana tsaye,
: Mugu har yaf hwaɗi jicce,
: Ko kamin Holis su amsai
: Na ga tarin dutci gaban Bawa
: Na ga tarin nan yai hakan ga!
: Ko kan da akai mugun mijin ƙasa,
: Ya kashe kanun sun yi maitan,
: ‘Dakin jinya da an ka kai Bawa,
: Likkita na dafan cikinai,
: Shi dahi gabanai har wuyanai.
: Ya ce: “Wannan kashi ya kashe shi”.
: An ka ce: “A kiro Gambo mawaƙi su
: Kila shi na gane wane na”
: Naz zaka nad duba hakan ga,
: Na yi awa ni ban sani ba.
: Da nag ga mutane sun rage haka,
: Naz zo ga kan Bawa
: Jini na idanu na cire mai
: Wanda ab bisa riga na’ije mai,
: Nac ce: ‘Kaicon na kaina”!
: Na ‘Bagarawa an nan Bunsuru Bawa
: Bunsurun ga da kuraye ka tsoro
: Ga shi mutane sun kashe shi.
: Na ishe Makau garin Gumi
: Za ni Barin Makau garin Gumi
: Kwance mutane sun kashe Bawa,
: In nat tai mi za ni cewa?”
: Sai mugu yat tad da kai haka,
: Yac ce: “In don haka ɗai na kak ka damu,
: Na lahena ban mace ba,
: Don kar jama’ar banza su cutan
: Cikin sha’anin banza da yohi
: Ka dinga faɗin Allah tsare gaba,
: Wanga rutsi dai mun wuce shi.

Translations:
A day he was chased at Gumi market
Get rid of him was the talk of the day
There was no one to give helping hand
People armed with swards, and cutlasses
Others with varieties of sticks
When he was besieged
I turned my face away
He was brutally beaten
Until he fell down helplessly
Before he was received by policemen
I saw a huge pyramid of stones by his side
It is indeed a very huge one.
Indeed, before he was over powered
In the struggle to fight back
He inflicted wounds to more than 200 heads
I salute my wicked husband
When he was taken to the hospital
The doctor checked his stomach properly.
Paying heed from his chest to the neck
He confirmed him dead
People say: “Let Gambo be invited to identify his client”
I pretended as if I don’t know him
As people vanished from the corpse
I stand close to his head
I removed the remnant of blood from his face
And clean up the blood from the shirt.
I lamented: “Oh my dear”!
This is the (corpse) of Bawa of ‘Bagarawa”
The he-goat that frighten hyenas
Is laid to rest (brutally) by people
I met Makau in Gumi town
And only to left the corpse of Makau in Gumi
Lying in blood killed and condemned
What a bad news to carry home?
Instantly, my wicked hero raised up his head
Saying: “You should not worry much for the episode.
I pretended as if I were dead, I am alive.
I dodged the crowd not to lynch me
In the useless act of our dirty business
Keep praying for Goɗs protection in future,
For today’s confrontation, we are through”.
Comments:
Cleverly, Gambo admitted his client was over powered at Gumi central market. The armless client met his terrible end when he was ambushed and besieged by unidentified enemies. However, Bawa was so courageous to fight back in defence of his life. Though he was denied access to any weapon to wage his defence, he was able to break more than two hundred ‘heads’ before he was finally ‘killeɗ. His death was confirmed by the community elders and finally by qualified medical doctor in Gumi General Hospital. In actual facts, Bawa’s case file as per the very episode is said to have been closed.
Gambo’s special interest in Bawa’s performance continues even after he was confirmed dead. In order not to betray the long cordial relationship with his client, he decided to pay his last homage to the wonderful actor. In this view, he poetically recited Bawa’s praises as a farewell elegy to the dying hero. In response to the rendition, Bawa behead the hear say and rumour of his death, and spoke of his experience on the confrontation to Gambo. It is good that Bawa confesses the illegality of his illicit business to be criminal and nothing therein to be proud of. People’s reaction to Bawa is a testimony of the society’s total rejection of the act of stealing and the capital punishment that awaits offenders.
Dogozo at Ƙaraye Hunting Forest:
Dogozo was a hunting hero of Garba ‘Danwasa Gummi. He was well noted for his fearless attitudes and braveness in many occasions by Garba and his contemporaries. Hunters jealously conspire to eliminate him out of the race. The story according to Garba ‘Danwasa goes:
Gindi: Sa maza gudu daji bawan mai ganga
          : Ci da ƙarfi mugun bori mai ban tsoro
          : Ina amali toron giwan masu farauta,
: Gafarar ka mai mashi sai in ce, ratce,
: In ka ƙi gurgusawa wahala na hwaɗa ka,
Jagora: Kai yaƙin da kai mini daji wajjen ƙaraye,
          : Ran nan na Garba ka ban haushi ka ban tausai,
          : Maza ko can suna takaicin kaskona,
: In yak kashe nama su ƙwace
: Sun ce: “Gobe in an tai farauta
: Kwananka sun ƙare”
: Nac ce: “Kasko kada ka tai farauta”
: Yac ce: “I’ im ‘Danwasa”
: An ka tai farauta mai kuryar ‘banna
: An ka ta da nama mai kuryar ‘banna
: Yat taho ga nama kasko yaj jicce nan,
: Daga mai kaɗa gatari nai
: Sai mai sa adda
: Sai mai sa mashinai,
: Tun ina kiran Dogozo na kar’bawa,
: Han nak kai kiran Dogozo bai kar’ba ba,
: Ko da nat taho ‘yan arna sun kere shi,
: Sun kashe giye ‘Danwasa sun bizne shi,
: Nat taho ga gawatai
: Naɗ ɗora jawabi
: Nac ce: “Uban dawa wandara kai an nan kwance”?
: Ko an kashe ka ba ka da tausai
: Bajinin na Garba
: Zambad da kay yi ta aka ranko ba illa ba,
: Duk wanda yaj ji tausan kura mai turaye,
: Halama ya gane ta da yag gwai gun Gardawa,
: Kaico kashin baƙin maciji
: Na san sai an taru
: Makashi maza wurin yaƙi
: In bai fasa ba,
: Wataran yana karo da mazaizai
: Bai komowa
: Nag ga Duna kasko ya koma sheɗa,
: Nag ga mai dawa kasko rainai ya komo,
: Nig ga mai dawa kasko ya koma zaune,
: Nag ga Duna ya riƙa balatan yankan ƙauna,
: Yad diba hauni, yad diba dama,
: Yad diba kudu, yad diba arewa
: Ya ce: “Uban kiɗi ‘Danwasa zo ka kiɗa min
: Kiɗin gida na mata ne
: Sai ko ‘yan yara.
: To Garba, kada ka koma kiɗina,
: Sai ta samu
: Yau tun da kag ga raina
: Ya ‘baci ga dajin ga
: Ban da kunne ban da hure
: Shi na ‘Danwasa
: Na hid da masu ɗaukan kaya
: Yara da karnai”
: Kamin a jinjina Dogozo ya yo ‘banna,
Yara: Don ga mutum ɗari huɗu da ishirin,
          : Ya sare su.

Translation:
Leader: You force men to run into the bush
          : The servant of the master of drum
: The strong, wicked and frightening spirit possession
: My dear powerful elephant a challenge to hunters
: Mr. Spear rattler, I advice you to decline
: Should you refuse to adhere, trouble would fall upon you.
:Ah! I recall the war you fought at Ƙaraye
: That day my client I was annoyed with you and also lamented equally
: When you made a big catch they confiscated it.
: They said: “Your days are numbered”
: Certainly tomorrow’s hunt would consume you
: I therefore warn you not to participate
: He replied: “No ‘Danwasa ( I am capable)
: The hunting was unfailingly conducted
: A (big) animal was chased by the hunters
: He lie on top of the captured animal
: Hunters were throwing their axes
: Some with cutlasses
: Others with spears
: I repeatedly call my hero and he responded courageously
: We keep communicating during the struggle
: We finally lost contact at the peak of the episode
: I rushed only to meet him hanged in the midst
: They killed him and buried him
: I stand by his corpse (grave)
: I said my words of last respect to him
: I said: “Father of heroes you are today laid to rest?
: As for me, your death is not a worrisome issue
: It is a compensation for your brutal actions.
: Whoever feel pity to a hyena, my dear master,
: He might have seen it in chain in Gardawa custody
: A (wicked) black cobra can’t be killed single handedly
: The killer of men in the battle field
: Would one day meet his death as same
: I carefully noticed his breathing
: I then saw his life is back,
: I saw him seated properly
: I saw my wicked client holding his destructive weapons
: He looks to his left and to his right
: He looks southward and northward
: He said: “My singer ‘Danwasa, come and play your music”.
: Playing music at home
: Is for ladies and children
: Garba, I said you should not play my music anymore,
: Until you ascertained the worst had happened
: As you noticed today I am annoyed
: There is no exception, get it from me
: I however consider carriers of our goods, children and dogs
: Before I start playing his music, Dogozo has gone wild
Chorus: Four hundred and twenty men were laid to rest (brutalized).
Comments:
Dogozo is an exceptional hunter and a leading warrior of Garba ‘Danwasa. Ƙaraye hunting field was a popular episode in Garba’s confrontational songs. Garba’s strategy to elevate his hero was to create an avenue of a serious fight in which Dogozo’s performance would be lauded. Upon all the warning to Dogozo not to attend the hunting, he insisted, he must attend. The emphasis made by Garba is only to draw our attention to the courageous stand of Dogozo. The narrative techniques were all in favour of Dogozo, though he was defeated and killed. Why must Dogozo perform again? How was he killed? Why was he killed? All these are known in the episode. But how he managed to contest his enemies and fight back courageously was the target of the episode.
In this development, the opinion of the Hausa proverb “Makashi maza, maza ka kashe shi” the killer must one day be killed, is a reality. Garba ‘Danwasa was never a betrayer to his subjects. He is convinced beyond any shadow of doubt, that Dogozo is not the only warrior in Hausaland. When he confirms that Dogozo was killed, he decided not to go home without seeing Dogozo’s corpse. As he witnessed it, he believed that his client deserves a good farewell message. In the message, he lamented seriously over the fatal incident. He praised Dogozo for his capability to confront crowd of able-bodied men at the battle front. He contends that Dogozo is still the winner, because his death is never an equal recompense for what he had done. He affirmed that, for sure it is not possible for any hero to put Dogozo to death, it must be a collective effort of uncountable warriors. Garba’s sermons and poetic rendition before Dogozo’s corpse, coupled with booming drums of music to the dying hero suspended the death, and the soul of Dogozo was returned back to the body instantly. This saga is what beautifies the narration and elevates the subject above all others.
Nazaƙi Sakkwato at Illela Central Market:
Nazaƙi was a notorious thief in Sokoto state. He was nick named Nazaƙi due to his dubious character and criminal activities. According to ‘Danmotti Wababe, his real name is Yahaya. He hailed from Gummi town (now in Zamfara state). Gambo gave him the title of Sarkin ‘Barayin sarkin Musulmi, because he resides in Sokoto at Illela domicile around Sultan’s Palace, and by history he (and his brothers) were brought to Sokoto to handle the traditional palace buildings in the emirate. His combat with people of Illela, at Illela central market was poetically reviewed by ‘Danmotti Wababe in his song of Nazaƙi. In the episode, ‘Danmatti Wababe indicates that, Nazaƙi was trapped and was caught unawares. After series of deceits and tactics to skip the trap, ‘Danmotti Wababe states:
Jagora: Tsoho ya saci fan talatin da bakwai
          : Sai ga ɗari takwas an ka dahe shi
: Ga bakad daɗɗawa an ka kama shi,
-        -        -        -        -        -
: Ga Nazaƙi baya baya da reza
: Ashe shi mai maɗi tana kallon sa,
: Rannan randar maɗi an ka kwara mai,
: Idanu nar rahe bai gani rannan,
-        -        -        -        -        -
: Ran nan ‘yan yara sun samu sa’a tai
: Mai adda da gatari mai gwalma
: Muhammadu jin kakai: “Taro muna mu kashe”
: ‘Yan Illela na hwaɗin:
: ‘Yau Nazaƙi Allah shi gafarta”!
    -     -        -        -        -        -
: Wawa bai san halin na kashindo ba.

Translation:
The old man was able to steal thirty seven pound.
He was unfortunately caught stealing one and a half penny,
It was while attempting a basket of Daddawa he was caught
Nazaƙi was walking deadly slow with his razor
Alas! He was carefully watched by one old woman
The whole pot of her maɗi was poured on his face,
He runs blind and so he was caught
That day, children were lucky to shout at him,
People with cutlasses, axes and bamboo sticks
All shouting get rid of him, kill him
People of Illela were saying
“May His Glory forgive Nazaƙi”
Death for where! The custodian of exhibit never died.
Comments:
Nazaƙi’s story is very similar to that of Bawa Makau at Gummi central market. In the balad of ‘Danmotti, people of Illela were convinced that Nazaƙi was gone. He was left in blood surrounded with stones and sticks, and nobody to claim the corpse. In the narration of ‘Danmotti, no policemen or any government officials attempt any help during the episode. At the end of the game, there was nobody to be held responsible, and the corpse was therefore abandoned in the market only for the sanitary workers to do away with it the following morning. To the surprise of everyone in Illela, the corpse was no where to be found the following morning. Neither the security agents nor the government officials or Illela people knew its whereabout. To the dismay of all, the gang-leader Nazaƙi was able to appear on duty on Sunday in Sokoto central market, unbelievable to Illela people. Thus, the circulated rumour of Nazaƙi’s death at Illela on Saturday was reputed by eye witnesses to Nazaƙi’s live appearance at work on Sunday, in Sokoto. What a wonderful death that never was! This is the peak of ‘Danmotti Wababe’s message in praise of Nazaƙi the culprit.
General Evaluation of the Episodes:
Hausa confrontational songs are replica of Hausa war songs. The thematic and stylistic approaches in delivering their inputs to the target audience are very similar. The confrontational aspects of the songs remain in favour of only the hero under review. Of course, the singers are very selective of a particular hero of their interest, and would make sure that at the end of the game, he gets the upper hand. In the general approach of Hausa confrontational songs the most laudable areas are:
·                    Name of the particular hero who is the desired target of the whole episode. His name will always ring a bell among the active stars in the episode. All the active stars’ names remain undisclosed and his remains unveiled too. This is the opening dexology.
·                    The hero will always be the target of all the fighters with full ambition to get rid of him or even kill him.
·                    The elevated hero would be fighting alone with no support from anywhere.
·                    He will be labeled as courageous person as he withstands all the difficulties, and observed all the shocks and pains therein, without making a fuss over an injury.
·                    At the terminal, he would be over powered and killed. He would resist the defeat and fight back to his best. Never give, up hope in the struggle and shows no sign of cowardice.
·                    Heroes singers remain loyal to their clients and continue to praise him even if he is confirmed dead.
·                    The farewell message and the drums echo of good bye to the everlasting journey would be the water of life to reactivate the dead body to continue wit the until victory is certain.
Why ‘Death’ is not Terminal in Hausa Confrontational Song
In Hausa cultural perspectives, to be a hero is to make a name in the history of the community you hailed from. A name that makes history had conquered the world forever and it must remain a solid reference in the history of history. To a native Hausa traditionist Kunya ake tsoro, mutuwa ta zama gado, “We fear shame but death is a routine occurrence to all”. Thus, if a hero is defeated, and accepted the defeat, it is a shame on him. Alas! If he struggles to death in defence of his name and freedom; he is a successful warrior and hence a hero in that regard. This is the secret behind reactivating hero’s life to repel defeat.
In addition, in Hausa’s opinion, death is a total closure of history, what ever is confirmed dead cease to have any relevance under any guise. Essential contributions of our heroes must never be allowed to vanish as a mere tale. The sacrifice done by heroes under whatever profession deserves respect and acknowledgement. For the Hausa singers of bravely, the only treasury to preserve special contributions of our heroes is to believe that they are never dead, they are still very active, and will never die as long as their exceptional contributions are remembered. A prominent Hausa court musician Ibrahim Narambaɗa elaborated this idea at length:
Jagora: Narambaɗa ba ya zuwa lahira
: Ko ya zo dawowa yakai
: Zaman kun san ɗauke mai akai
: Toya matsafa sadauki na Bello
: Baban Isa baban Buwai
: In don ni ka gama lafiya.

Translation:
: Narambaɗa would not go to the netherworld
: Even if he got there will be back again,
: You know it would be waived for him
: Destroyer of shrine strong man of Bello
: Father of Isa and Buwai
: I wish you all the best.
The Narambaɗa’s prophecy was in support of the earlier contention that heroes remain alive for ever, death has nothing to do with their names and the credits they earned while in active life.
Hausa singers of bravely are well versed with treasury of our orature and history. Traces of death in our tales, epics, proverbs, praise-epithets, and legends, might assist the idea of giving death a special place in their master-pieces. In the songs of war, agitation, revolts, riots and freedom fighting, it is inevitable to skip citing death in the composition. The terminal consequences of confrontational songs are: imprisonment, torture, exile, prosecution, enslavement, capture, and execution. Of all these terrible consequences, death counts higher and therefore attracts greater attention of the singers.
The Research Findings:
   In the specimen of the songs provided herein as examples, it is observed that, “death” frequents messages of Hausa confrontational songs. “Death” in the thematic analysis of the affected songs is targeted at a particular leading hero in the episode. In all the cited selected songs, the elevated figures (heros) were forced to test the bitterness of death, but were later resurrected to continue to perform successfully. The belief of life after death is a well known phenomenon in religion and culture across the human world. However, the manner in which the episode was narrated by the different singers, with same tricks and result, is my great concern. It did not all happen by accident, and never a revelation at all, but a gift of an idea from one singer to another. In this view, I decided to employ historicity on the genesis of the said songs to try the case logically.
Ƙassu Zurmi was the eldest among the singers of bravery in Hausaland. He demonstrated the art in two of his songs: Kwazo Sabattacce and ku ne shaggun duniya kuma ku ne shaggun lahira. These were his best heroes in hunting. Narambaɗa was Kassu’s contemporary and his elder in the profession. They all hailed from Zamfara. In the song of Nazaƙi, ‘Danmotti Wababe borrowed the idea from Kassu to praise Nazaƙi. ‘Danmotti senior Alhaji Gambo Fagada in the brave songs (of odd category) kiɗin sata “Theft songs”. I supposed, the song of Dogozo of Garba ‘Danwasa Gummi was composed late after Nazaƙi's song and before Bawa Makau songs of Gambo. The idea might have originated from Alhaji Kassu Zurmi the elder “professor” of brave song in Hausaland from whom it was lifted by ‘Danmotti Wababe and captured by Garba ‘Danwasa, and Gambo appropriated it in his own style. This exchange of ideas and transfer of melody are very common in Hausa oral songs.
Conclusion:
The intimidation and victimization of man by death stops at the soul and its supporting visible organs. The credits of the historic break-through remain alive forever. The singers efforts to exaggerate the performance of their beloved clients was to make their name popular in history. To be a hero means to be a great figure in the very history of the community you belong to. In whatever capacity a name is made, it is a name and an achievement in history. Hausa confrontational songs are important segment in the categories of brave songs and the relies of pre-historic wars and agitation songs. The violent natures of the said songs are part of inherited ancient crisis that are yet to be eradicated even at the present era of our history. The prayer in the songs is not agitation against established authority nor to initiate criminal activities that would breed insurgency in our society. However, it is all about making history, and to make us committed to whatever we believe is good. If we believe in what we are committed, we must work hard to make name out of it. To make a name, means to endure all the shortcomings in life’s struggle and never betray the trust of the commitments. In Hausa culture, a hero’s name, is well captured and preserved in the varieties of orature. The one in the oral songs ranks higher.


Bibliography
Allan Kellechear. 2007. The Social History of Dying, Cambridge: Cambridge UP. London.

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