Wednesday, January 9, 2019

From Zinder To Hausaland: (The Traces of Zinder Hausa-Muslim Scholars and Scholarship in Hausaland)

Migration is a universal culture across human history. The culture of migration is unavoidable in human history from time immemorial (evolution of mankind) to date. By definition, human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location (Wikipedia). The said movement could be external, which is often over long distances or internal within a short range within the province, state or kingdom. Experts in the history of Hausaland observed that, one aspect of the internal history of Hausaland was large scale emigration from the area in the seventeenth century (Adamu, 1978:27). This paper is an attempt to study the religio-cultural impact of migration...

From Zinder To Hausaland: (The Traces of Zinder Hausa-Muslim Scholars and Scholarship in Hausaland)

Professor Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza
Department of Languages and Cultures
Faculty of Humanities and Education
Federal University of Gusau
Zamfara State, Nigeria

Being a paper presented at Scientific Events that accompany the Commemoration of the Birth of the Republic of Niger (18th December 1958), under the theme: Cultural Renaissance and Socio-economic Development in Zinder Region, Niger and Africa, under the auspices of the Committee Saboua of Zinder-Organization with the University of Zinder from 10th -11th December, 2018.

          Migration is a universal culture across human history. The culture of migration is unavoidable in human history from time immemorial (evolution of mankind) to date. By definition, human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location (Wikipedia). The said movement could be external, which is often over long distances or internal within a short range within the province, state or kingdom. Experts in the history of Hausaland observed that, one aspect of the internal history of Hausaland was large scale emigration from the area in the seventeenth century (Adamu, 1978:27). This paper is an attempt to study the religio-cultural impact of migration in respect of native Hausa-Muslim scholars of Zinder to the rest of Hausa-Muslim world. The paper intends to look through factors behind their migration, their traces in the many regions of Hausaland, their impact on and relevance to the receiver population. In addition, their identity, cultural inter-marriage and assimilation (if any) in the host communities would be critically assessed. In the opinion of this paper, the migration of Hausa native speakers (of whatever status or category) regardless of the reasons behind it, is hitherto referred herein, as internal migration.

          Materials related to Zinder factor in the Central Sudanic Kingdoms are very scanty as I learnt. The available secondary sources in French, Arabic, and Hausa are very short of the subject under review. However, I considered it necessary to consult published and unpublished materials (books, journals, articles, newspapers and thesis) to review the related materials and assess the relevant points that I may likely raise in the discussion. Secondly, field work research on Zinder, and peculiar cities of the Hausa States specifically, Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Bauchi, Kaura, Sokoto and Argungu are very much necessary for data collection and cross-examination. At this stage, I arranged personal interview with selected Hausa-Muslim Scholars who claimed to be natives of Zinder/Damagaram. In the course of the discussions, some of their elderly students were also interviewed for further contact. It is unavoidable, that some of these scholars who could not be reached during the research trip were contacted through telephone and internet (Whatsapp/email/text messages). Group discussion with selected people of Zinder Origin who reside in Kano, Sokoto, Katsina, Argungu were held at different places. Time limit could not allow questionnaires to be distributed but the material gathered during the field work are satisfactory.

          This paper is a special study on the native Hausa-Muslim Scholars of Zinder/Damagaram who migrated from Zinder to Hausa speaking communities in the present day northern Nigeria. The yard stick used to identify the said scholars are oral interview with their descendants, students, relatives, children, families and friends. The main concern is to establish that a scholar or teacher is a native Hausa by origin, from Zinder/Damagaram region, and must be a scholar, teacher, or student of Islamic studies. In addition to all, his traces or locations in the present northern Nigerian towns/cities must be ascertained. The period covered is from the development of Islamic Scholarship in Zinder and their first contact with Hausa city-states.

Research Questions
          Up till now, scholars are yet to come up with a cut and dried definition of a “true Hausa native” and the Hausaland”. This might not be unconnected with forced migration of many sub-Saharan African communities over the years, inter-marriages, cultural integrations, and religious affiliations, to mention but a few. The major research questions are: What is the period of Hausa contact with the religion of Islam? Through which routes did Islam penetrate into the Hausaland? The role of migration and the spread of Hausa-Muslim scholars and scholarship in Hausaland. The Hausa factor in West-African Islam through migration and State formation in Hausaland could be assessed. The role of Zinder Hausa-Muslim Scholars in the establishment of Tsangaya (Islamic centres), Zawiyya (Islamic cycles for Sufism), Zinder cultural Islamic materials in Hausaland, the palace of Zinder Hausa Scholars/students/teachers in the contemporary Islamic movement in Hausaland (northern Nigeria in particular). Who was responsible for the acculturation of Islamic learning in the early Islamic period, the Wangarawa or Damagarawa? Who were the first settlers or founders of Zinder Hausas, Barebari or Tuaregs? Are the Hausas still relevant in the region of Zinder?

Traces of Hausa Communities in Zinder
          Zindar, was also spelled “Sinder”, or “Zinder”, and “Zindar” by different native speakers of languages in the area and beyond. Zindar is the official spelling, but “Sinder” in the pronunciation of the Barebari, Tuaregs and Manga speakers. However, “Zindar” and “Zendar” spelling are the spellings of Hausa native speakers of the region. It is the second largest city in the Niger Republic with a population of three hundred and twenty two thousand nine hundred and thirty five (322,935) as at (2012) United Nations estimate. There seems to be rapid increase in the population, from 170,574 by 2005, to over 200,000 between 2005-2011, to 322,935 as at (2012). As at late 2018, the population may be 400,000-500,000 considering the booming commercial activities and polygamanious nature of the Hausa-Muslim community in the region. Zinder is 240km north of Kano (the heart of Hausaland).
          In some official documents, Zinder is the original name of the region but locally referred to as Damagaram. Historically, it was the capital of the Muslim dynasty established in the 18th century. It was before then, a province under Borno empire, but freed itself from the sovereignty of Borno in the mid-19th century. Zinder was the capital of Niger until 1927, when it was moved to Niamey. Zinder the Sultanate of Damagaram comprises three major ethnic groups: Hausa, Kanuri, and Mirriah. According to T. Price (1993):  

In the West African Sahel lies the old Hausa city of Zinder, Niger. Since the last few decades, it has constantly faced considerable population of growth….”

          In the citation of Encyclopedia Britannica, it reads:
The city is situated at the border of regions populated by Sedentary Hausa farmers and nomadic Fulani. Zinder lies at cross-roads of the main east-west road Niger and the north-south route from Agades to Kano Nigeria. Pop (2011) 170, 575, (2012) 235, 605.

          The major linguistic groups are Hausa, Songhai, Fulani, Tamashek, Kanuri, Teda, and Arabic. The use of Arabic alphabet resulted in Fula and Hausa becoming written languages and hence developed ajamanization of knowledge among Hausa and Fula.
The Hausa are the largest group, constituting more than half of the present population, though the majority of the Hausa people live in Nigeria. The Hausa occupy the centre of Southern Niger as far as Dogondutchi (Dogondutsi).

          From the aforementioned discussion Hausa are the leading ethnic groups in the Zinder region as per their population and political status respectively. These are some of the historical facts which I considered very relevant to the Hausa space in the history of Zinder. In this view, therefore, Zinder is a typical Hausa settlement founded by Hausa speaking community which was historically one of the powerful ancient Hausa Kingdoms in the Central Sudan.

Etymologies of the Name ‘Damagaram’ and ‘Zinder’
          A careful study of the origin of the words “Damagaram” and Zinder” and the way in which their meanings have changed throughout history, revealed a good ground of defence to our arguments. The region was originally called ‘Zinder’ but locally named ‘Damagaram’. Thus Damagaram in this view may be the second name of Zinder. However, in the etymology of the word “Damagaram” we may discover a different opinion. According to the sources I gathered from, Damagaram is a Kanuri language, with the following linguistic analysis:
Da               (nama) meat
Ma              (qarfafawa) emphasis “the meat”
Gurimi        you are eating
Is                 second person singular
/i/                tense maker, present tense
“The meat you are eating” or “you are eating meat”.

According to the oral sources, Damagaram was a settlement founded by an unknown hunter. A group of hunters (perhaps of Kanuri origin) met him eating meat and so the name was coined. It is interesting that, the identity of the hunter they met was not disclosed. He might not be a Kanuri but they approached him in Kanuri perhaps because the territory by then was under Kanem Borno and so they considered all the inhabitants as Kanuri. In my assumption, he might be a Hausa man, as the Damagaram of the then period was a Hausa kingdom and Hausas were the leading fishermen, hunters, and traders of the region. In addition, the old settlement of “Damagaram ta Qaya” is a strong reason to justify “Damagaram” as a true Hausa settlement. The name “Damagaram ta Qaya” which English rendition is “Damagaram” of the thorny bush” is purely a Hausa phrase with classical Hausa sound of “Q” a very difficult sound to be pronounced by non-native speaker (especially Kanuri, Fula, Tuareg, Teda and Arabs). This opened up another etymological argument that, the word Damagaram may be of Hausa Origin from “Dama gari”, “Dama garinmu”, “Dama garan” meaning a conqueror, or a warrior, or at my right hand side.
          As per the etymology of Zinder (Sinder, Zandar Zindar) there exist only one oral source during my recent field work research. According to the oral sources, “Zinder” was an ancient Hausa settlement founded by one hunter who was also a professional butcher. He sells his meat in “Tsire” style, he ranged his meat on a very big stick to attract his customers in form of a window display. The meat sticks were very big and long as zangarniyar gero or maiwa, he invites his customers/buyers by saying: ga tsire Zandar, Zandar, and was named mai Zandar-Zandar, gradually the reduplication was reduced to “Zandar” which other non-native speakers of Hausa refer to Zinder, Sinder or Zinder. Subsequently, the name “Zinder” was adopted to be the official name of the region.
          The historical facts and etymological assumptions of the names herein mentioned, justify Zinder/Damagaram a true Hausa settlement founded by Hausawa with pure Hausa political and cultural set up. Therefore, with this development, the Hausa-Muslim Scholars of Zinder and their scholarship programmes are Hausa oriented which help in the spread of Hausa Islamic cultures from Zinder to the receiving population in Hausa cities and towns in the northern region of Nigeria.

Islam in Zinder
          Zinder was a former vassal state of Kanem-Borno and later developed as an Islamic dynasty in the 18th century. Kanem-Borno was situated strategically in the centre of the trans-Saharan trade routes. This trade route enhanced early contact with the Muslim world of Tunisia, (Gazali, 2005:12) Kanem was said to have received Islam as early as eighth century (Trimingham, 1962:209). This great history makes Kanem to be one of the four super powers of the then Islamic world: others being Egypt, Turkey and Baghdad (Mustafa, 1992). The position of Zinder as ancient Islamic dynasty far back in 18th century and its successful independence in 1893, it is possible that the echo of Islam was properly heard in Zinder in the 8th century. It is very possible that Islam penetrated into Zinder before Mali and Songhai. In fact, Kano chronicle states that the religion was introduced during the reign of Ali, nick-named Yaji, 1349-85, (Trimingham, 1962:130), in Katsina Muhammadu Korau (1320-53) introduced Islam with the help of Ibrahim Sura who succeeded him. The political influence of Songhai and Borno played a good role in the Islamization of Hausa states. Zinder being at one time under the political over lordship of Borno, which has the longest Muslim dynasty tradition in Africa, as well as in the Central Sudanic Kingdoms, might be second to Borno in receiving Islam. The strategic position of Zinder under the Kanem Borno and its flourishing Islamic dynasty in the eighteen century were good chances for the development of Islamic education and scholarship through contact with Egypt, Tripoli, Tunis, Mesina and Timbuktu. The popular Hausa cities of Kano, Gobir, Kebbi, Zazzau, Bauchi, Katsina, and Maraxi (the second Katsina) were not opportuned to tap the early Islamic religious knowledge as Zinder.

Hausa-Muslim Scholars in Zinder
          It is historically not possible to know the first Hausa native to embrace Islam as a religion nor can it be possible to trace the first Muslim House among the Hausawa of Zinder. The Hausa speakers of Zinder claimed to be Arawa, Arewawa, Gobirawa, and very few among them claimed to be Katsinawa and Kabawa. The Arawa , Arerawa, Lofawa (the Arawa with zube facial marks of Kabawa) and Gimbanawa were the majority of Hausa ethnic groups in Dogondutsi, Maraxi, and Niamey. The Gobirawa might be the early ancestors of Gobirawa migrants from Egypt through Borno to Zinder, Katsina and Zamfara route to Alqalawa. The Katsinawa in Zinder are probably the descendants of the deposed Have monarchs of the Katsina proper who migrated to Maraxi as refugees. The Kabawa groups are the remnants of Arawa, Kyangawa, Dandawa, of the ancient Songhai kingdom before Kanta. These facts were gathered from contacts with various Hausa ethnic groups in present Zinder. Many Fula, Kanuri, Manga, Badde, Tuaregs, Arabs, Teda, and Songhai linguistic groups were assimilated and Hausanized through inter-marriages and Islamization. These among other things gave Hausa and Hausawa advantage to dominate the political and religious class in the Zinder region. Zinder Islamic affairs and scholarship were Hausanized from the grass root of child education starting from reading of Arabic alphabet, Qur’anic knowledge, and advanced shari’a studies. This was successfully implemented in Zinder through Karatun allo, Tsangaya, Zawiyya, and Soro style from around the 18th century.

Migration of Zinder Hausa-Muslim Scholars to Hausaland
          Many factors were responsible for the massive migration of Zinder Hausa-Muslim Scholars to the different regions in Hausaland. The tribal over lordship of Borno upon Zinder before 1893 contributed to the migration of some Hausa scholars to the independent Hausa kingdoms of their choice, where they may be free of unnecessary intimidation by the ruling class of Kanem. The French colonial policy of assimilation was in serious conflict with traditional Islamic Education Policy. This may be a strong factor for the massive migration of Hausa-Muslim Scholars specifically from the year (1912-1926). The Zinder’s wars with Haxejia, Mum’o in the 1870s, Machena 1896, Nguru Ngilewa in which Galadima Mammadu Kellumi was captured at Borsari by Sule Sarkin Shanu of Damagaram and summarily executed in Zinder was another factor. When the state became a battle ground the conducive atmosphere for learning was disrupted, no scholar felt at ease to dispense knowledge. The Sokoto Caliphate of the 19th century attracted a number of Zinder Hausa-Muslim Scholars as it was considered a new dar-as-salam for scholars and students to advance their studies. Finally, the period of drought contributed to the migration of Hausawa (Scholars, Students and farmers) to the fertile land in Hausaland.

The Data
          From the on-going discussion, the Hausa-Muslim Scholars and teachers in Zinder had all the right to migrate and look for a habitable place conducive for learning. The migration of Damagarawa Scholars to Hausaland was not organized in a team or group. The desire to acquire knowledge and dispense it was the principal factor behind the migration of Hausa Scholars of Damagaram to Hausaland. Language factor may also be considered as a secondary factor hence the learning and teaching were conducted in Hausa language. In Hausaland, Islamic education at all levels were conducted in Hausa language which was to the advantage of Hausa native speakers. The data to be analyzed include:
1.     Traces of Damagaram Scholars in Hausaland.
2.     Impact of Damagaran Hausa Scholars in Hausaland.
1.       Kano
          Damagaran is 240km north of Kano, it is the shortest route to reach the leading city-state of Hausaland, Kano. In Kano, Damagaram scholars resided at different places in the city. The first group of Damagaram scholars to settle in Kano were said to be Arerawa and Tuaregs (Hausanized in language and culture). The notable scholars of Damagaram in Kano as at late 17th century was Sheik Iliyasu Damagaram who was said to reach Kano in the year 1792. He was the grandfather of Sheikh Aliyu Harazimi of Hausari quarters Kano. Sheikh Aliyu Harazimi was born in Kano 11/12/1919/1336AH. He established a popular Islamic School in Kano and very many of the Kano Muslim Scholars were his students. He died in Kano, 2013. In addition to Harazimi there were many learned Damagaram scholars in Kano city and beyond, most popular among them are:
1.     Malam Yusuf Atamma Fagge
2.     Malam Muttaqa  Fagge
3.     Malam Ibrahim Dingwal Kurna
4.     Alarama Malam Mu’azu Kurna
5.     Malam Isa Alarama Gwale Hauren Makaranta

2.       Bauchi; Yobe, and Jigawa
          Traces of Damagaram Scholars are well pronounced in Bauchi, Yobe, and Jigawa States of Nigeria. The disciples of the early Hausa-Muslim Scholars of Damagaram migrated from Kano to the various cities in Hausaland. In the regions mentioned herein notable among them who established Islamic Scholars in Borno and migrated to the central cities of Hausaland were:
1.     Sheikh Muhammad Xan’auta - Damagaram (1920-1990).
2.     Gwani Adam Damagaram (Jaji-Maji) (1900).
3.     Gangaram Umaru (Geidam) (1950-2000).
4.     Sheikh Mustapha Talban Kura Imam Bade Emirate (1880-1979).
5.     Gwani Buhari Damaturu Tsangaya (1911-2000).
6.     Gangaram Muhammad Badamagare (1881-1980).

These great scholars of Damagaram graduated thousands of students in the field of Islamic Sciences, Jurisprudence, Qur’an, Tasawwuf, Law, and History. Prominents among their disciples include:
1.     Sheikh Aliyu Harazimi.
2.     Goni Karamsam.
3.     Liman Abba Ainoba.
4.     Goni Mustapha.
5.     Sheikh Abubakar El-Miskin.
6.     Sheikh Muhammad Maidala’ilu.
7.     Malam Goni Kime.
8.     Malam Muhammad Jaji-Maji.
9.     Sheikh Ibrahim Saleh Al-Hussaini.

3.       Zazzau, Katsina, Zamfara and Sokoto
          These places are little far from Damagaram compared to Kano and its neighbours. However, very few Damagaram Scholars were traced during the field research. In Zazzau, Zariya in particular we have:
1.     Sheikh Musa Hassan Gado-da-Masu Zazzau, Unguwar Qofar Kibau, Zariya.
2.     Malam Adam Qauran Julai.
3.     Malam Muhammadu Xankumbasi, Deputy Imam Izala mosque Kasuwar Xanmagagi Zariya.
4.     Malam Yale of Qofar Fada near Unguwar Kaki.

In Zamfara, Malam Ibrahim Fari Badamagare of Gangaren Kwata Haido house, is among the leading Muslim jurists in Gusau city. His school of advanced Islamic Studies is well attended by Gusau Muslim preachers and teachers. In Katsina, the story is a little bit different from what is obtained in various cities in Hausaland. Katsina Scholars who were assumed to come to Katsina from Libya, Morocco, Egypt, and Saudi-Arabia who claimed to be Arabs by origin were of recent discovered to be Damagarawa, many of them settled in Gafai, Gargajau, Masanawa, Gambarawa, and Albaba, (Darma, 2011: 12,7-76,85, 115-117).
1.     Malam Garba Albaba Damagaram Inwala, Katsina.
2.     Malam Baba Hamza Inwala, Katsina.
3.     Malam Alhassan Sabuwar Anguwa, Katsina.
4.     Alaramma Malam Ibrahim Gyare Tudun Wada, Katsina.
5.     Malam Hashimu Sabuwar Kasuwa, Katsina.
1.     Makarantar Malam Ali Mai ‘Yan Makaranta Unguwar Madawaki, Katsina.
2.     Makarantar Malam Yusuf Xanzango bayan ‘Yankutungu, Katsina.

          Damagaram was an ancient Hausa settlement situated at a very strategic route of Trans-Saharan Trade and not very far from the heart of West African business centre “Kano”. In addition, the advantage of being one time under Kanem Borno empire made the region to be conducive for missionary activities as early as the eighth to ninth centuries. More importantly, the presence of Banu Umayyad settlement in Kanem during the Abbasid Caliph paved way for the early Muslim missionaries to recognize the region. Albakari writing in 1067 AD reported the presence of the descendants of some Banu Umayyad refugees in Kanem (Gazal, 2002:22). The Damagaram of that period, was the first region of the Kanem to host the activities of the Abbasid and Umayyad missionaries for being situated at the gateway to Kanem dynasty through the Trans-Saharan Trade route. These are few of my arguments for identifying Damagaram as the first ancient Hausa kingdom to receive the message of Islam.
          In the data provided, we noted that Damagaram regained its independence from Borno political over lordship in 1893. Thus, before the said period it received its missionaries from Kanem. This, is the justification that the first generation of the Damagarawa , Scholars who migrated to the northern region of Nigeria were first based in Borno as their first transit to enter into the Hausaland. The immediate communities of Borno in the regions of Yobe, Azare, Bauchi, Katagum, Misau, Potiskum, Damaturu, Haxejiya, Birniwa and the rest, were the second host to Damagaram Muslim Scholars while proper Hausa cities were at the tail end. In this view, Sokoto, Zamfara, Kebbi, Katsina, and Yawuri kingdoms have very few Danmagaram Muslim missionaries in their regions.
          The Damagaram style of creating a special quarters for the scholars clerics was a borrowed idea from the Kanem kingdom. (Gzali, 2005:31) states that:
The rulers have always created conducive atmosphere for scholars to pursue knowledge by granting Mahram, allowing and supporting the establishments as centres of learning building of schools, madaras and hotels.

          In Damagaram there existed a similar quarters in the name of “Unguwar Malammai Damagaram” situated at the backyard of the Sultanate palace. This tradition is very common in Hausaland which I am of the opinion that it was introduced by the Hausa-Muslim missionaries of Damagaram. Currently, we do have such domiciles in Kano city, Katsina, Zariya, Sokoto, Gusau and Qaura, Yawuri town, Bunza, Argungu, Azare, Misau, Jega, and in many Hausa settlements in the republics of Niger, Benin, Ghana, Burkina, and CA.
          The teaching method and curriculum of the Damagaram Hausa-Muslim scholars was almost the same throughout Hausaland. Pupils were first taught dictation, consonants and vowels, reading and writing abilities and then back to the drawing board again. The Karatun allo, reading with slates, and Karatun sani, advanced studies. All the cultural and moral ethics in the instructions and imparting of knowledge are same. Pupils and adults were first introduced to Qur’anic Studies, its techniques and sciences, and were finally allowed to graduate after committing the Qur’an to memory. The extant practice of charity and sacrifices that were offered by students of the Qur;anic Schools in Hausaland originated from Damagaram Muslim missionaries. Indeed, the graduation ceremony, prize giving and speeches were introduced by Damagaram scholars.

The Result
          From the data analyzed herein, it is very clear to identify Zinder/Damagaram as a historic Hausa settlement and indeed the first Hausa-Muslim dynasty in the Sudanic kingdoms which flourished in the 18th century. Therefore, study in migration and state formation in Hausaland cannot be comprehensive without providing a good space for the Hausa kingdom of Damagaram. Damagaram relationship with Kanem Borno and Sokoto Caliphate of the 19th century was not given the proper treatment it deserves. In the study so far the following facts were identified:
1.     The generations of Hausa-Muslim scholars in Damagaram were Qur’an oriented scholars. This I think might not be unconnected with their historic relationship with Kanem.
2.     The actual date for the early migration of Zinder Muslim Scholars to Hausaland cannot be ascertained as records were not documented as such. However, it may likely be dated around 7th to 8th century by the records of Sheikh Ilyasu Damagaram first visitor to Kano in 1792 ahead of Sokoto Caliphate in the 19th century.
3.     The Zawiyyah style of Islamic centres ‘Unguwar Malamai’, during the heydays of Sufism in Hausaland, Unguwa turned into Zawiyyah in all the Hausa city-states. Zawiyya of Sheikh Adam Azare Badamagare is very popular in Bauchi. During my field work, I discovered that Damagaram Scholars of Qur’anic Studies use “Tsangaya” Centre, but Sufi revolutionist turned it to Zawiyya, “Tsangaya” is a classical Hausa word and Zawiyyah is of Arabic origin.
4.     The honorifics titles alluding to the students and experts in Qur’anic recitation of Hausa origin, originated from Damagaram. The names Titibiri, Kolo, Gardi, Alarama, Gwani, Gangaram, and Goga were initiated by Damagaram Hausa Scholars.      

Suggestions and Recommendations
          With these very little inputs of the Damagarawa to the development of Islamic Scholarship in Hausaland I write to present the following suggestions and recommendations:
1.     I suggest that the studies of Damagaram/Zinder Islamic dynasty to be part of the curriculum of Education in the Republic of Niger. This would open up room for further research on Damagaram at advanced level.
2.     There is need for urgent research and documentation of the Hausa Scholarship in Zinder/Damagaram. This should include documentations of their writings in whatever language, their schools, students, and their legacy in Islamic education.
3.     The Zinder Sabuwa conference should go beyond a mere ceremonial conference to a wider forum of Zinder studies. The present position of Zinder in the academia is sympathetic, no Nigerian or Niger Universities have any meaningful course to handle Zinder affairs in the world of academia.

          Hausa-Muslim Scholars contributed immensely to the Islamization of the West-African communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hausa as a language itself, played a very significant role in the Hausanization of Islamic knowledge with the aid of ajami, translation, and transliteration (from Arabic to Hausa language). This enhanced rapid development of Islam in the Sudanic kingdoms of West-Africa. Damagaram Hausa-clerics laid down the foundation of using native languages in the propagation, teaching and learning Islam as a religion. The Hausa style of Karatun allo, the Tsangaya tradition of Adavanced Studies, ceremonies and traditions in the course of learning were credited to the Damagaram scholars in the history of Hausaland. Nigeria notable Islamic Scholars of yesterday and today, in persons of Sheikh Nasiru Kabara, Sheikh Abubakar Gummi, Sheikh Xahiru Bauchi, Sheikh Ibrahim Ibrahim Saleh Al-Hussaini, Sheikh Baba Ba’are, to mention but a few were in one way or the other the products of Damagarawa disciples. In conclusion, there is no doubt that, it was Damagarawa who led the foundation of Hausa factor in West African Islam. The Kanem political domination failed to avert the power of the Damagaram Islamic dynasty of the 18th century. French colonial brutality of assimilation was unable to confront the wind of change by the able Hausa-Muslim clerics of Damagaram in the affairs of their missionary activities.
Without Zinder, Niger Republic is a mere footnote in West African history. Before Islam, Zinder was under the cloud in the Sudanic history. Minus Hausas, Zinder has no place in African history, (Bunza, November 2018).

Abdullahi, S. G. 2016. “Migration and Economic Development: A Case Study of Hausaland and the Region of Agadez”. Paper presented at the International Conference on Migration Dynamics in West Africa, organized by the Unviversity of Agadez, 12th -14th, 2016, p. 5.
Adamu, M. 1978. The Hausa Factor in West African History. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press, p. 27.
Adamu, M. 2010. The Major Landmarks in the History of Hausaland (Eleventh Inaugural Lecture. Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo University, p. 1-29.
Adeleye, R. A. 1976. “Hausaland and Borno 1600-1800” in Ade Ajayi, J. F. and Crowder, M. (eds) History of West Africa, vol. 1, p. 590.
Aliyu, N. 2014. “A Reflection on the Intellectual Influence of Borno on the Major Hausa States from 15th Century” in Sokoto Journal of History Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 4.
Aliyu, N. 2015. “Revisiting the History of Scholarship through Indeginized Arabic in Hausaland and the Reality of Today” in Noufal, A. (ed) Language and Identity in Africa in the Light of the Current Variables. Cairo: Institute of African Research and Studies, University of Cairo, p. 180-197.
Balogun, S. A. 1980. “History of Islam in West Africa up to 1800 in Ikime Obaro”, Groundwork of Nigerian History. Ibadan: Heinemann.
Bravmann, R. A. 1973. Islam and Tribal Art in West Africa. Cambridge University Press, p. 6.
Chisholan, H. (ed) Zinder: Encyclopedia Britannica (11th Edition). Cambridge: University Press.
Clarke, P. B. 1982. West Africa and Islam: A Study of Religious Development from the 8th to the 20th Century. London: Edward Arnold Publishers, p. 1, 66 & 98.
Darma, M. M. 2011. Tarihin Unguwannin Birnin Katsina. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press, p. 66, 95 & 117.
Doi, A. I. 1984. Islam in Nigeria. Zaria: Gaskiya Corporation Ltd, p. 60.
Dumber, R. A. 1970. “Damagaram (Zinder Niger) 1812-1906: The History of Central Sudanic Kingdom”, PhD History Thesis, Los Angeles: University of Califonia, University Microfilms, p. 27.
Fagge, M. D. A. “Literary Life of the Intellectual Tradition of the Ulama in Kano since 1804” PhD Thesis. Kano: Bayero University, p. 95-100.
Gazali, K. Y. 2005. The Kanuri in Diaspora the Contributions of Kanem-Borno Ulama to Islamic Education in Nupe and Yorubalands. Lagos: CSS Press, p. 12-23.
Hiskett, M. 1975. A History of Hausa Islamic Verse. London: SOAS University of London p. 12 & 16.
Hiskett, M. 1984. The Development of Islam in West Africa. London: Longman Publishers, p. 68.
Hogben, S. J. 1969. An Introduction to the History of Northern Nigeria. London: Oxford University Press, p. 40.
Johnson, H. A. S. 1967. The Fulani Empire of Sokoto. London: Oxford University Press, p. 1-6.
Kani, A. M. 1982. “Aspect of Cultural and Intellectual Relations between Northern Africa and Central Sudan in C70-1000AD with Special reference to Kanem Borno and Hausaland: A Survey for NHRS”, ABU, Zaria, p. 10.
Kani, M. A. 1985. Intellectual Origin of Sokoto Jihad. Ibadan: Imam Centre, p. 20-25.
Khalid, S. 1997. “A Socio-economic Study of the Transformation of Migrant Qur’anic Schools System (Almajiranci) in Sokoto Metropolis”, PhD Thesis. Kano: Bayero University, p. 65.
Kware, M. 2004. “History of Tuareg Migration from Niger Republic to Sokoto Metropolis 1900-1985” PhD Thesis. Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo University, p. 97.
Laminu, Z. H. 1992. Scholars and Scholarship in the History of Borno. Zaria: The Open Press Ltd, p. 45.
Last, M. (n.d.) “The Traditional Muslim Intellectual in Hausaland: The Background” AH/1/12/135, p. 6.
Maishanu, H. M. 2007. Five Centuries of Historical Writings in Hausaland and Borno 1500-2000. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Ltd, p. 76.
Olayiwola, A. F. 2007. Islam in Nigeria One Crescent Many Focuses. Sakirabe Publishers, p. 37.
Quirk, A. H. 1995. “Aspects of Islamic Social Intellectual History in Hausaland: Uthman ibn Fudi 1774-1804” PhD Thesis. Toronto: University of Toronto, p. 25.
Shah, S. I. A. 1979. Islamic Sufism, Delhi: Idarah-1, 2009 Qasimjan St. Delhi India, p. 15.
Shaw, F. L. and Flora, L. L. 1905. A Tropical Dependency: An Outline of the Ancient History of the Western Sudan with an Account of the Northern Nigeria. London: James Nisbet Co. Limited, p. 227.
Trimingham, J. S. 1970. A History of Islam in West Africa. London: Oxford University Press, p. 110 & 126.
Tsiga, I. A. and Abdallah, U. A. 1997. Islam and the History of Learning in Katsina. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd, p. 24, 77, 88 & 173.
Ubah, C. N. 2001. Islam in African History. Kaduna: Baraka Press and Publishers, p. 153 & 163.
Usman, B. and Nura, A. 1983. Studies in the History of Pre-Colonial Borno. Zaria: Northern Nigerian Publishing Company, p. 196-199.
Usman, M. T. 1998. “Intellectual Tradition in Sokoto Emirate, 1903-1960” PhD Thesis. Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo Unversity, p. 120.
Usman, Y. B. 1983. “A Reconsideration of the History of Relations between Borno and Hausaland before 1804 AD” in Usman, B. and Nura, A. (eds) Studies in the History of Pre-Colonial Borno. Zaria: Northern Nigerian Publishing Company, p. 175.
Yahya, D. 1981. Morocco in the Sixteenth Century: Problems and Patterns in African Foreign Policy. Longman Publishers, p. 25.

No comments:

Post a Comment